**Definition**** of parameters for the determination of macroscopic powder properties**

__Carr Angle____ of Repose__

The angle of repose is the angle between a horizontal plane and the free surface of a conical powder pile (in static equilibrium) accumulated by powder falling from a defined height.

It is determined by the height (h) and the radius (r) of the conical powder pile:

*Carr Angle** of Repose* = tan^{-1} (h/r)

__Carr Angle____ of____ Fall____ or____ Carr Angle____ of Collapse__

The angle of collapse corresponds to the angle of repose of a powder heap to which a defined impulse shock has been given.

__Carr Angle____ of Difference__

The angle of difference is the difference between angle of repose and the angle of collapse.

__Carr Angle____ of Spatula or__ __Flat-Plate____-Angle__

The flat-plate angle is the angle between the surface of a powder pile and a defined spatula on which it was piled up after burying the spatula under a powder bed and extracting it.

__Carr Loose____ Bulk Density__

The bulk density is determined from the volume and mass of a loosely packed powder.

__Carr____ Packed Bulk Density____ or __*Tap Density*

The tap density is determined by the volume and mass of the powder after it has been compressed, which is done through repeated dropping of a measuring cylinder from a defined height.

__Carr____ Compressibility__

The compressibility is calculated from the ratio of the difference between the bulk density (L) and tap density (P) to the determined tap density:

*Carr** Compressibility* [%] = 100 (*P – L*)/*P*

__Carr____ Cohesion__

The cohesion is a measure for interparticular interactions and is determined by defined sieving of the powder sample (at a given sieving time).

__Carr____ Uniformity__

Uniformity is a measure for the width of the volume-based particle size distribution determined by sieving analysis.

*Carr** Uniformity* = *d*_{60}/d_{10}

__Carr____ Dispersibility__

The dispersibility is determined by dropping 10.0 g of the powder to be characterized from a defined height into a bowl and subsequently determining the mass (*m*) of the powder remaining in the bowl.

*Carr Dispersibility* = 100 (10 g – *m*)/10 g

__Voidage__

The voidage or so called powder porosity indicates the percentage value of the interparticle volume to the total volume of the powder compacted to volume constancy.

__Flowability index__

The flowability index is calculated from the weighted sum of the angle of repose, flat-plate-angle, compressibility, cohesion and uniformity indices.

__Floodability index__

The floodability index is calculated from the weighted sum of the indices of the flowability index, the angle of collapse, the angle of difference and the dispersibility.