A heap of powder…
…can consist of a number of finely ground materials, such as pharmaceutical agents, synthetic adsorbents (MOFs, zeolites, activated carbons), filling materials by powder manufacturing or raw materials for ceramic bodies and construction materials. Regardless of the application, a detailed characterization of raw materials as well as intermediates and end products for quality insurance and process control is required.
The various powder parameters that can be investigated with 3P measurement techniques can be classified as follows.
1. The particles as elements of the powder head
If investigations of particles without consideration of interparticular spaces are required, then the following methods are suitable:
- Characterization regarding particle size and/or shape by means of laser diffraction or static light scattering and dynamic image analysis. The Bettersizer S3 Plus combines the measuring methods of static light scattering and dynamic image analysis by its unique and innovative design and thus offers a more comprehensive characterization possibility than a pure laser diffraction instrument.
- Density determination by gas pycnometry determines the volume of the pure solid, i.e. without intraparticulate (pore) and interparticulate (intergranular) volume. The density (according to DIN 66137) is therefore the “true density” of the solid and can be determined with the 3P densi 100.
- The specific surface area (BET surface area) or pore analysis from the gas adsorption method also describes the pure bulk property, but can be very dependent on the fineness of the material. In extreme cases, a coarse particle has an immeasurably small specific surface area of a few cm²/g, while the same material in the form of nanoparticles has a BET surface area of several m²/g. The 3P surface, 3P sync, 3P meso and 3P micro are an optimal choice for this measuring task.
2. The particle aggregate as a set of particles (porous or non-porous) with their interparticular voids
If investigations of particle heaps (heaps, powders, fillings) with consideration of interparticular spaces are required, we offer a range of measuring methods for the determination of specific parameters of powder heaps.
Bulk density and tapped density determinations in accordance with ISO standards can be carried out with the two measuring instruments PowderPro A1 (automatic) and PowderPro M1 (manual) for a wide range of powder types. Both instruments enable a complex characterization of powder heaps: they ensure the determination of the angle of repose and collapse, the dispersibility, the uniformity and the cohesion of the powder heaps. From these parameters, the calculations of the corresponding difference angles as a material characteristic, as well as the compressibility, the interparticulate volume (voidage), the flowability and the floodability index are derived.
If only the bulk density or the tapped density of powder heaps is to be determined, the “small aparatus” of the 3P BeDensi group offers a probably unsurpassed price/performance ratio: A bulk density device for less than 1000 Euro, a tapped density analyzer for less than 2000 Euro – it is always worth contacting 3P Instruments: